Mandel - Wilson
Unexplored Nebulae Project
Discovering, cataloging and imaging unexplored nebulae of the Milky Way Galaxy.

Integrated Flux Nebulae

Integrated Flux Nebulae is the term I've coined to describe high galactic latitude nebulae that are illuminated not by a single star (as most nebula in the plane of the Galaxy are) but by the energy from the integrated flux of all the stars in the Milky Way.  These nebulae clouds, an important component of the Interstellar Medium, are composed of dust particles, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and other elements.

The dust is scattering blue light and is fluorescing a broad red spectrum of light known as the Extended Red Emission (ERE) that adds an additional broad-band emission to the red part of the spectrum.  Therefore,  on color images there are both blue and red components creating beautiful and interesting images. The dust clouds were known but the beautiful nebulae within them were not, and these are the first images of them.

The dust map below shows the large structure called  the "Polar Spur" a large plume of dust  ejected from the plane of the galaxy to very high galactic latitudes - it covers Polaris.  I have devised a nomenclature, named the major components and have imaged a number of these areas.  The catalog of these objects, and others, is called the Mandel-Wilson Catalog of Unknown Nebula.  See the thumbnails below the map for links to the larger images.

Adapted from IR Dust Maps provided by astronomers:  D.J. Schlegel, D.P. Finkbeiner, & M. Davis

This map shows the area known as "The Polar Spur" - a high galactic latitude cloud of dust illuminated by the integrated flux of the Milky Way
This image is a negative image which allows the viewer to see more detail - thus, dark areas represent bright portions of the sky.

MW = Mandel-Wilson Catalog of Unexplored Nebulae - See link for catalog.

Click on the thumbnail or caption below to see the full size image:

Close-up of IF Nebula surrounding M81-82.
 .IF Nebula near M82 - Part of Volcano Nebula Complex
Wide-field image of IF Nebula surrounding M81-82
MW2 - MW3 - MW4
Volcano Nebula
IF Nebula around M81-82.
Angel Nebula
MW1 - MW2
Polaris Nebula
Lower Region of the Volcano Nebula by Russ Croman
Polaris Nebula - South Lobe Portion
 IF Nebula around IC 4633 by Jim Riffle of Astroworks


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